Understanding the origins of poor literacy and numeracy skills in adulthood and how to improve them is of major importance when society places a high premium on proficiency in these basic skills. This edited collection brings together the results of recent longitudinal studies that greatly extend our knowledge of what works in raising skill levels, as well as the social and economic returns to improvement. Many fundamental research questions in adult education involve change over time: how adults learn, how program participation influences their acquisition of skills and knowledge, and how their educational development interacts with their social and economic performance. Although a growing number of longitudinal studies in adult basic education have recently been completed, this book is the first systematic compilation of findings and methods. Triangulating findings from different methodological perspectives and research designs, and across countries, this text produces convergence on key conclusions about the role of basic skills in the modern life course and the most effective ways of enhancing them.
A high level of literacy in both print and digital media is required for negotiating most aspects of 21st-century life, including supporting a family, education, health, civic participation, and competitiveness in the global economy. Yet, more than 90 million U.S. adults lack adequate literacy. Furthermore, only 38 percent of U.S. 12th graders are at or above proficient in reading. Improving Adult Literacy Instruction synthesizes the research on literacy and learning to improve literacy instruction in the United States and to recommend a more systemic approach to research, practice, and policy. The book focuses on individuals ages 16 and older who are not in K-12 education. It identifies factors that affect literacy development in adolescence and adulthood in general, and examines their implications for strengthening literacy instruction for this population. It also discusses technologies for learning that can assist with multiple aspects of teaching, assessment,and accommodations for learning. There is inadequate knowledge about effective instructional practices and a need for better assessment and ongoing monitoring of adult students' proficiencies, weaknesses, instructional environments, and progress, which might guide instructional planning. Improving Adult Literacy Instruction recommends a program of research and innovation to validate, identify the boundaries of, and extend current knowledge to improve instruction for adults and adolescents outside school. The book is a valuable resource for curriculum developers, federal agencies such as the Department of Education, administrators, educators, and funding agencies.
Now in its third edition, the Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts—sponsored by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English—offers an integrated perspective on the teaching of the English language arts and a comprehensive overview of research in the field. Prominent scholars, researchers, and professional leaders provide historical and theoretical perspectives about teaching the language arts focus on bodies of research that influence decision making within the teaching of the language arts explore the environments for language arts teaching reflect on methods and materials for instruction Reflecting important recent developments in the field, the Third Edition is restructured, updated, and includes many new contributors. More emphasis is given in this edition to the learner, multiple texts, learning, and sharing one’s knowledge. A Companion Website, new for this edition, provides PowerPoint® slides highlighting the main points of each chapter.
This book provides perspectives from authors in six countries (Canada, Colombia, Germany, France, UK, USA) pertaining to adult learning in the 21st Century. This book grew out of an exciting International Conference on Adult Learning (ICAL) held in Paris, May 2729, 2012. Imagine “listening in” as these international scholars, representing expertise in various areas related to adult education, focus their collective attention to the topic of adult learning. Their task is to concentrate their research and intellectual acumen on where adult learning is heading in the 21st Century and to bring together their varied areas of expertise to expand the field of adult education’s knowledge base. This book provides more than a record of their papers and meetings. Instead, each author has revised their paper with symposium feedback to help capture the discussion, synergy and growing knowledge base we envision together. Now you can read how these leading scholars understand adult learning in light on their collective work. Areas of focus include • Heuristics of Adult Learning • Facilitating Self Directed Learning • Individuals and the Learning Process • Executives’ SelfDevelopment • Distance Learning • Science Self Directed Learning for All • EntertainmentEducation Communication Strategy • Positive Deviance to Transform Education • Learning Through the Life Course This book will benefit teachers, researchers, administrators, and students in the field of adult education, learning, and practice. The synergistic result of bringing together nine scholars results in many new practical applications, research streams, scholarship, and practice suggestions.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an authoritative reference dealing with all aspects of this increasingly important field of study. Offering a comprehensive range of articles on contemporary language teaching and its history, it has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals and as a reference work for academic studies at postgraduate level. In this new edition, every single entry has been reviewed and updated with reference to new developments and publications. Coverage has been expanded to reflect new technological, global and academic developments, with particular attention to areas such as online and distance learning, teacher and learner cognition, testing, assessment and evaluation, global English and teacher education. Themes and disciplines covered include: Methods and materials, including new technologies and materials development Contexts and concepts, such as mediation, risk-taking in language learning and intercomprehension Influential figures from the early days of language teaching to the contemporary Related disciplines, such as psychology, anthropology and corpus linguistics? It covers the teaching of specific languages, including Japanese, Chinese, Arabic and African languages, as well as English, French, German and Spanish. There are thirty five overview articles dealing with issues such as communicative language teaching, early language learning, teacher education and syllabus and curriculum design. A further 160 entries focus on topics such as bilingualism, language laboratories and study abroad. Numerous shorter items examine language and cultural institutions, professional associations and acronyms. Multiple cross-references enable the user to browse from one entry to another, and there are suggestions for further reading. Written by an international team of specialists, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an invaluable resource and reference manual for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject.
Presents research in Employee-Driven Innovation, an emergent field of study that meets the demand for exploiting new innovative potentials in organizations. There is a growing interest in creating new knowledge in innovation, emphasizing human resources and social processes. The authors intend to take the global lead in research on these areas.
Foreign language learning is a progressive endeavor. Whatever the method, the learner should advance from one point to another, constantly improving. Growing proficiency entails growing language content. Content is complex, displaying many dimensions. Syllabus designers, textbook authors, and teachers often struggle with the monitoring of content. Computer-assisted systemization helps to handle it in a manageable framework. Besides inventorying content, it ensures more balanced selections, calculated progression, and controlled reiteration of previously learned material. It gauges the usability of authentic material in relation to the level attained. During the teaching process, it allows the instant selection of items needed for a communicative situation, focus on forms, or particular exercises. This book first describes the theoretical background for systemization, including a historical overview, with special attention to the Common European Framework and the new Profiles and Referentials. Next the practical steps for computer-assisted implementation with examples taken from French and English, but applicable to any language.
Using the concept of community building as a framework, this volume summarizes and updates readers on the state of adult English as a second language (ESL) education in the United States. It provides a complete description of this population of learners and their learning needs. The various chapters discuss possibilities for community building in the adult ESL classroom, combining research, theory, and practice. Community building is not a new topic; we often discuss it informally with our colleagues and students. However, scant written material exists-with a focus on adult ESL-documenting how it happens or reconciling theory with practitioners' experiences. In this volume, several practitioners and researchers explain the ways in which they use community-building principles in adult ESL settings. The authors' descriptions of applications of community-building principles can help other adult educators implement these ideas in their teaching practice. This is the 121st volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. Noted for its depth of coverage, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education is an indispensable series that explores issues of common interest to instructors, administrators, counselors, and policymakers in a broad range of adult and continuing education settings, such as colleges and universities, extension programs, businesses, libraries, and museums.
This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place.
This is one of a series of reviews, commissioned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, accompanying the pre-Budget report 2006 (to be published 6 December 2006, Cm. 6984, ISBN 0101698429). This report considers the long-term skills needs of the UK economy to maximise economic growth and productivity and to promote social justice and social inclusion. It finds that although the UKs skills base has improved significantly over the last decade, it remains weak by international standards, and even if current targets to improve skills are met, we will still lag behind that of many comparator countries by 2020. The report concludes that a radical step-change is required across the skills spectrum to address these challenges, and it identifies a number of key principles which must underpin delivery of this raised ambition, including shared responsibility between government, employers and individuals; a focus on economically valuable skills which are demand-led; the flexibility to adapt and respond to future market needs; and maintaining continuity where possible by building on existing structures. Recommendations include: raising adults skills across all levels, including basic levels of literacy and numeracy and shifting the balance of intermediate skills from level 2 to level 3; the creation of a new Commission for Employment and Skills to better articulate employers views on skills; routing all public funding for adult vocational skills in England, apart from community learning, through Train to Gain and Learner Accounts by 2010; and launching a new Pledge for employers to voluntarily commit to train all eligible employees up to level 2 in the workplace. The report estimates a possible net benefit of at least £80 billion over 30 years could be achieved if these objectives are met, arising from increased productivity and employment growth rates.
This NAO report focuses on the government's learndirect initiative. The Department for Education and Skills established Ufi, which is the government backed e-learning organisation which runs and coordinates the learndirect service, in 1998 to develop people's skills and work with employers and to increase employees' capabilities. It now provides a half million learners a year with the opportunity to improve their skills, from a choice of 2,400 learndirect centres, with 1,600 main centres and 800 link centres. In total 1.7 million people have taken 4 million learndirect courses. Ufi and the learndirect service have received £930 million of education funding. The NAO has a number of recommendations in five key areas for the Learndirect service by: reducing costs; maximizing benefits of the infrastructure and the tools it has created; making sure that services are sustainable; expanding work with employers; improving consistency of learner assessment and persuading more learners to continue learning.
An estimated 26 million people of working age have levels of literacy and numeracy below those expected of school leavers, and many of them experience practical everyday problems. The UK has lower levels of literacy and numeracy in the adult population of working age than many of our international competitors. In order to address this problem, the DfES launched the Skills for Life Strategy in March 2001, with a target to improve the skills of 2.25 million adults by 2010. By 2006, at least £3.7 billion will have been spent on the strategy, which includes ESOL programmes (English for speakers of other languages). Following on from an NAO report (HCP 20, session 2004-05; ISBN 0102931631) published in December 2004, the Committee's report examines the progress being made to improve the literacy, language and numeracy skills of adults in England, to expand learning provision and improve its quality.
The policy of the World Bank has been to focus on universal primary education, rather than supporting adult literacy programmes. But slow progress in Sub-Saharan Africa has convinced the Bank that adult literacy, especially amongst women, is a key factor in promoting economic and social development. This study of programmes in Uganda shows that adult literacy programmes can be more effective than was previously thought; that government run programmes can be as effective as those run by non-governmental organisations and that there is a large, unsatisfied demand among Ugandan adults for more education.
Reflective Teaching in Further, Adult and Vocational Education is the definitive textbook for reflective professionals in further, adult and vocational education, drawing on the experience of the author team and the latest research, including that of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) findings. It offers extensive support for trainee and practising teachers in further, adult and vocational settings, for both practice-based training and career-long professionalism. Now in its fourth edition, written by a collaborative author team of further, adult and vocational education experts led by Yvonne Hillier and Margaret Gregson, Reflective Teaching in Further, Adult and Vocational Education offers two levels of support: - practical guidance for practitioner success with a focus on the key issues including individual and collaborative approaches to reflective practice, a systematic approach to educational improvement based upon Joint Practice Development; and - evidence-informed 'principles' to aid understanding of how theories can effectively inform teaching practices and offer ways to develop deeper understanding of effective practices. The new edition is also enhanced by improved navigation and updated pedagogical features, including a revised chapter structure and text design, all-new case studies, activities, figures and diagrams. The team includes: Margaret Gregson (University of Sunderland, UK) | Yvonne Hillier (University of Brighton, UK) | Gert Biesta (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg) | Sam Duncan (Institute of Education, University College London, UK) | Lawrence Nixon (University of Sunderland, UK) | Trish Spedding (University of Sunderland, UK) | Paul Wakeling (Havering Sixth Form College, UK) Reflective Teaching in Further, Adult and Vocational Education directly compliments and extends the chapters of this book. It has been designed to provide convenient access to key texts, working as a compact and portable library. The associated website, www.reflectiveteaching.co.uk offers supplementary resources including reflective activities, research briefings and advice on further readings. It also features a glossary of educational terms, links to useful websites and showcases examples of excellent research and practice. This book forms part of the Reflective Teaching series, edited by Andrew Pollard and Amy Pollard, offering support for reflective practice in early, primary, secondary, further, vocational, university and adult sectors of education.
Creativity is a buzz-word in the education sector in the UK right now, but it is still seen mainly as the domain of the creative arts in the curriculum. This book shows how creativity can be an approach to and an ethos for all aspects of school life and management. Developing a school which enables children and young people to realise their creative potential is an immense challenge. There is no single formula for transforming a school into an environment which nurtures and develops the creativity of pupils. Each school has to grow creatively in its own way and in its own time. "Building a Creative School" explores the practical steps schools can take to enable this process. It examines organisation, leadership, approaches to teaching and learning, curriculum design, assessment for learning, professional development, and partnerships, and is rooted in both theory and practice. The authors draw on current research on creativity and learning, and on their own extensive professional experience. Examples, case studies, and practical ideas and suggestions are threaded through the book. While providing inspiration in the examples of success they describe, the authors also offer practical guidance and share some of the pitfalls, challenges and barriers to creativity they have encountered in their own work. "Building a Creative School" is for everyone involved in school change - teachers, school leadership teams, headteachers, teacher trainers, policy makers, governors, and anyone interested in professional development of teachers and school leaders. The book will also be of interest to those working in partnership with schools and seeking to understand the dynamics of this process.